Science Author Guidelines Cover Letter

Author Guidelines

Author Guidelines DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS OF PROTEIN SCIENCE Please note: Effective with the January issue, this journal is now published in an online-only format.



Articles Published

Review of Manuscripts

Originality, Copyright, and Conflict of Interest

Manuscript Submission and Formatting

Submission of Revised and/or Accepted Manuscripts

Manuscript Elements and Order

1. Title Page

2. Abstract and keywords

3. Abbreviations and symbols

4. Introduction

5. Results

6. Discussion


8. Materials and Methods (Note: This section follows the Discussion section, or Conclusions section, if present!)

9. Supplementary Material




Figure Legends

Figures (artwork)

Cover Art

Submission of Figures: Detailed Instructions

Supplementary Material

Requirements: Protein and Nucleic Acid Sequences and Coordinates

Copyediting and Page Proofs

Publication Charges and Color Charges

Funded Access Option


Checklist for Manuscript Submission and Supplementary Material


Protein Science serves as an international forum for publishing original reports on proteins in the broadest sense. The journal aims to unify this field by cutting across established disciplinary lines and focusing on “protein-centered” science.

Protein Science encompasses the structure, function, and biochemical significance of proteins; their role in molecular and cell biology, genetics, and evolution; and their regulation and mechanisms of action. Representative topics include, but are not limited to, the structure of proteins and strategies of determining protein structure by chemical, biophysical, and recombinant methods; peptides; protein domains; protein folding and molecular dynamics; novel isolation procedures; enzyme action and regulation; interactions of proteins with nucleic acids, lipids, ligands, and other proteins; receptor-mediated signal transduction and other trans-membrane phenomena; the functions of proteins in replication, supramolecular assembly, immune reactions, development, and other biological processes; protein trafficking, synthesis, and sorting; and the recognition, localization, and signaling of proteins. In addition to the investigative techniques already mentioned, the journal will publish results of protein-centered work involving sequencing, modification, and mass spectrometry; cDNA, mutagenesis, and cloning; computational analysis; isolation and characterization; thermodynamics and hydrodynamics; kinetics; and equilibrium phenomena. Reports on the crystallization of proteins must provide novel information of general interest. Examples of novel information may include new approaches to expression or isolation of proteins in a form amenable to crystallization, novel conditions for crystallization that may be employed for other proteins, or new information related to the function of the protein. Research articles on computational or theoretical investigations on protein structure or function are encouraged. The article should be of general interest to the Protein Science community, and report results with a clear connection to a significant biological problem. The conclusions or predictions must be testable by a feasible experiment. Articles reporting new approaches to predict biologically relevant properties are encouraged; modifications of current algorithms without indication of significant improvements are not acceptable. Applications of molecular dynamics, homology modeling and other generally available program packages will not receive editorial support unless they provide biological insights which are clearly novel, and lead to experimentally testable hypotheses. Authors proposing predictive methods based e.g. on amino acid composition, or sequence, or 3D structure, are generally expected to make such methods available via a publicly accessible web server.

A primary consideration in judging the suitability of a manuscript is its originality and timeliness, the lack of which will be grounds for rejection, even if the work is well done from a technical perspective. Because judgments of originality and interest are inherently subjective, this policy implies that the editors and reviewers reserve the prerogative to decline publication on these grounds.


Protein Science publishes full-length original research papers as well as several other types of articles.

A.) Full-Length Articles must report new findings that lead to significant advances in our understanding of the proteins of interest. The investigation should be at a point at which the major objectives have been accomplished and the findings can be convincingly presented in a concise article. Only the definitive evidence required to support the authors’ points should be presented; lengthy supporting data, if needed, should be included as Supplementary Material. Since Protein Science has contractual limitations on the volume of content published each year, it is very important that the articles be as concise as possible. Published full-length articles should not exceed about 5, words of text and include no more than a total of 10 display items (figures, tables, etc.). This corresponds to a submitted double-spaced manuscript with references, tables and figures not exceeding 30 pages.

B.) Accelerated Communications are intended to provide an outlet for brief research articles of exceptional importance and timeliness. The criteria for acceptance will be considerably more stringent than for full-length articles, and there will be a limit of 2, words in the body of the manuscript plus a maximum of four display items (figures, tables, etc.). The work must be complete and stand on its own merits. Accelerated Communications will be reviewed by one of the Editors and a member of the Editorial Advisory Board; every effort will be made to reach a decision within three weeks. The decision will be Accept or Reject (except for minor corrections), and accepted articles will be published in the next available issue of the journal. Manuscripts that exceed the size limits will be returned without review. The format may be continuous prose or divided into the traditional sections. All other procedures will be according to the Instructions for Authors.

C.) Methods and Applications describe new methods and approaches that are expected to have broad applicability in understanding various aspects of protein structure and function. Reports could, for example, describe methods related to protein engineering or protein purification or protein characterization or protein folding, or methods for structure determination and analysis by a variety of different techniques. The main requirement is that the work be novel and of broad applicability to protein science. The utility of the new method should be illustrated by specific examples. If the work includes the use of novel computational procedures then the related software should be available from a specified website or sufficient information about the new algorithm should be provided so that the results reported could be reproduced by an expert in the field. The format of the manuscript will be the same as for a Full-Length Article.

D.) Tools for Protein Science include descriptions of computational procedures, databases, web servers and other tools that will be readily accessible and useful to the protein science community at large. The utility of the tool should be illustrated by specific examples. At the time of submission, the tool being described must be fully functioning and freely accessible for editorial review. It is required that the tool should also be free and accessible to all users upon publication. An accessibility statement describing this access must be included in the manuscript. The format of the manuscript will be the same as for a Full-Length Article.

E.) Protein Structure Reports are brief descriptions of new protein structures. The complete submitted manuscript should be limited to approximately 1, words and should include no more than three display items (figures, tables, etc.). As is the case for all articles published in Protein Science, Protein Structure Reports will be expected to include either novel biological or structural insights, or information that will be of interest to the readership of the journal. Because these articles will be very concise, the criteria may be relaxed somewhat relative to those that apply to Full-Length Articles. In this context, authors may choose to describe several structures in a single report, in which case the relevance of the group as a whole can be taken into consideration. In submitting multi-structure reports authors will be given discretion in including additional figures and text. Reports should contain a short abstract and keywords. Introductory and background material should be kept as brief as possible. Results and Discussion sections can be separate or combined. The Reports will typically include two figures and one table. One of the figures will be a stereo diagram showing the overall fold of the protein. Residue numbering will be included so that the path of the chain can be readily followed. For structures determined by NMR, this figure should show an ensemble of approximately 20 independently-derived backbone structures. The second, optional, figure may highlight a biologically-relevant or other interesting aspect of the structure. For structures determined by X-ray crystallography, the table will present data collection and refinement statistics, including the resolution and completeness of the data with agreement between equivalent intensity measurements. Statistics for the outer shell of data will also be given. The number of residues included in the refinement will be stated together with the number of solvent molecules, bound ions, and the like. Average B-factors for protein, solvent, and other atoms should be quoted. Values of the crystallographic R-factor and Rfree will be stated together with the discrepancy of the model from expected stereochemistry. The distribution of the Ramachandran angles among the categories defined by MOLPROBITY [Chen, V.B., Arendall, III, W.B., Headd, J.J., Keedy, D.A., Immormino, R.M., Kapral, G.J., Murray, L.W., Richardson, J.S. and Richardson, D.C. () Acta Cryst D66, ] should be stated. For structures determined by NMR the number of distance or other restraints should be given together with the average departure from the value of the restraint. The discrepancies of the average structure from idealized geometry should also be summarized together with the distribution of the Ramachandran angles.

F.) For the Record articles are intended to enable the publication of an interesting and important observation that should be in the literature. Articles reporting “one experiment” that are clearly part of a larger investigation are not appropriate. Similarly, success with a procedure that is not guaranteed to produce results (e.g., crystallization of a protein) is not appropriate unless the authors have employed novel approaches that will be applicable to other systems and thus of interest to a broader audience. The information must stand on its own merits. Manuscripts submitted to “For the Record” should contain a short abstract and keywords, and introduction and discussion sections (separate or combined) and should not exceed 2, words in length. A single illustration conveying essential information, such as a protein sequence, is encouraged.

G.) Reviews are intended to familiarize the general reader with the current status and future trends of rapidly evolving topics of current interest. Authors interested in submitting a Review should first send a letter of inquiry stating the title, scope, and tentative outline of the proposed article. We aim for an average length for Review articles of about 5, words and more concise manuscripts are encouraged (i.e. the complete submitted manuscript including figures and double-space text not to exceed about 30 pages). Reviews may also be solicited by the editorial staff. Reviews should include an Abstract of no more than words and four to six keywords or short phrases for indexing. Reviews will be subject to evaluation similar to that for other contributions. Publication charges are waived for invited reviews.

H.) Recollections (usually by invitation) are historical reviews that are intended to give an overview of how the understanding of an interesting topic in Protein Science developed, including protein structure, protein properties, and general or specific biological roles of proteins. A contribution may be based largely on personal participation in research or may give a perspective of how knowledge in an area developed. The anecdotal accounts are intended to give insight and background usually lacking in conventional scientific papers. They may have an autobiographical flavor. Recollections can vary in length, with no specified format other than that a title, author’s name and affiliation, and a brief biographical sketch should be included. Usually figures and tables are not necessary but if included should have titles and legends. Inclusion of a few selected references is optional. One or more photographs may add interest. If a photograph has been previously published, written permission for its use must be included.

I.) Letters to the Editor are typically used to comment on articles recently published in the journal. They are usually short, do not include an abstract, and can include a figure or table to display essential information. When Protein Science receives a Letter to the Editor that relates to a published article, the authors of the article are sent a copy of the letter and invited to provide a response. The Letter and the Response are then sent to appropriate reviewers to determine if publication is justified. When a Letter and a Response are accepted, they are published as submitted, i.e. without revision.


Every effort will be made to decide whether the paper is appropriate for review within one week. Papers considered confirmatory or lacking sufficient originality will be returned without review. Most papers considered appropriate will be reviewed by at least two independent reviewers, one of whom may be a member of the Editorial Advisory Board. The Editor and/or the Associate Editors will make a final selection of reviewers. If the reviewers disagree, or if in the judgment of the Editors the manuscript has not received adequate consideration, the manuscript and the reviewers' opinions may be submitted to a member of the Editorial Advisory Board for arbitration. Editorial decisions that result from this process are usually final. The inability to identify referees willing to review a manuscript may be considered grounds for rejection.


One condition of publication is that all manuscripts submitted to have not been published previously nor are they under consideration for publication elsewhere. Electronic publication open to viewers by subscription or by unrestricted access to a website is considered prior publication with the exception of dissertations mounted in electronic format by the library system of the degree-granting institution. Papers involving multiple authorship are reviewed with the understanding that all authors have approved the final submitted manuscript and concur in its submission to Protein Science.

In the interests of candor and to help readers to detect potential bias, we now require authors of original research papers to declare any competing interests in relation to papers accepted for publication. Please submit one statement on behalf of all authors. Competing interests are defined as those that, through their potential influences on behavior or content or from perception of such potential influences, could undermine the objectivity, integrity or perceived value of a publication, or could embarrass the authors or the journal. They include, but are not limited to, any of the following:

Funding: Support for a research program (including salaries, equipment, supplies, reimbursement for attending symposia, and other expenses) by organizations that may gain or lose financially through publication of this paper. Employment: Recent (i.e., while engaged in this research project), present, or anticipated employment by any organization that may gain or lose financially through publication of this paper.

Personal financial interests: Stocks or shares in companies that may gain or lose financially through publication; consultation fees or other forms of remuneration from organizations that may gain or lose financially; patents or patent applications whose value may be affected by publication.

It is difficult to specify a threshold at which a financial interest becomes significant, although we note that many US universities require faculty members to disclose interests exceeding 5% equity in a company. We do not consider diversified mutual funds or investment trusts to constitute a competing financial interest. We do not require authors to state the monetary value of their financial interests.


Online manuscript submission. All Protein Science manuscripts must be submitted online via at the Protein Science ScholarOne Manuscripts site: Please do not submit hard copies. To find out if you have already created an account in ScholarOne Manuscripts, enter your e-mail address in the "Password Help" field.

If you are submitting an article for the first time and/or do not have an existing account, carefully review the instructions posted under the heading "Resources" on the upper right hand side of the login page; then click "Create Account" in the top right corner of the screen. At the end of a successful submission, a confirmation screen with a manuscript number will appear and you will receive an e-mail confirming the manuscript has been received by the journal.

If you receive no confirmation, or if you experience technical difficulties during the submission process, click the "Get Help Now" link at the top-right corner of the login page.

Information with submission. Each manuscript must be accompanied by a submission letter, copies of any related papers by the authors that are either submitted or in press, and the full names and E-mail addresses of at least six qualified reviewers. These reviewers should have expertise in the subject to review and should be chosen to avoid any potential conflict of interest (e.g. they should not have been coauthors or collaborators during the past five years). Authors may disqualify up to two potential reviewers. Authors are not required to be members of The Protein Society. At the time of submission, you will be asked to provide a word statement outlining the importance and/or impact of the work presented in your manuscript to a broader audience. If your manuscript is accepted for publication in Protein Science, this brief summary may be used to prepare a highlight of your article to appear at the front of the issue of publication describing noteworthy papers 'In This Issue.'

Formatting. Please submit your manuscript as a Word file or LaTeX file (for text and tables) and TIFF or EPS (for figures). Other file types are not suitable for production. Please note that ScholarOne Manuscripts does not accept a single file upload from the author. Text, tables, and figures will need to be uploaded individually. Do not embed figures or tables in the document.

Manuscripts must be written in clear and concise English with double line spacing throughout (including the title page, references, tables, and figure captions) and at least 1" (25mm) margins on all sides. All pages must be numbered. A standard point font should be used throughout. Please do not use any foreign language fonts (i.e., Chinese, Japanese) in the manuscript as they will not display properly. Do not use word hyphenation or text justification options.

Instructions for Submitting LaTeX Files

1. Submit a single, complete PDF file of your manuscript designated as "Supplementary Material for Review" in the File Type field on ScholarOne Manuscripts.

2. All source files must be uploaded as "Supplementary Material Not for Review."

a. Submit your source file in LaTeX format as a single file.

b. Submit figure and table files separately. Figure files must be named according to figure number.

c. Follow resolution and formatting guidelines for figures as indicated above.

d. Tables should be saved in either .DOC or .RTF format.

e. Do not embed tables in the text file.

f. Bibliography Style: Use \cite{} to cite \ bibitem{} listed in the reference list.

Correspondence: For submitted manuscripts, communication with the Editor will normally be via the online manuscript management system. Correspondence can also be sent to:

Brian Matthews, Editor

Protein Science

Institute of Molecular Biology

University of Oregon

Franklin Boulevard

Eugene, OR , USA

Telephone: ()

Facsimile: ()



To streamline the entire review and publication process, authors are urged to follow the same formatting instructions for initial submission as for revision. For math objects within final submissions, please note that before submitting your Word file, make sure to UPDATE any embedded MathType objects in the file; otherwise, italics and other font specs might be lost. Double-check your Word manuscript visually to ensure the accuracy of fonts within the Word file. When a manuscript requires revision, the corresponding author should resubmit the revised manuscript to the Website within 30 days. Revisions returned after the requested period may be considered as new submissions.

MANUSCRIPT ELEMENTS AND ORDER Full-length Articles should be organized in the following way. If authors choose an alternate order, justification for doing so must be included in the cover letter. All manuscript pages must be consecutively numbered.

1. Title page. The title should be concise and informative, but should avoid the use of acronyms and abbreviations. Include (a) full article title; (b) names and affiliations of all authors (matched by superscript numbers); (c) name, mailing address, telephone number, fax number, and E-mail address of the corresponding author; (d) running title of 50 characters or less; (e) list of total number of manuscript pages, supplementary material pages, tables, and figures; and (f) a description of supplementary material including filenames.

2. Abstract and keywords. Include (a) an abstract of no more than words, followed by (b) four to ten keywords or short phrases for indexing that reflect the content and major thrust of the paper, and (c) a word statement, written for a broader audience, outlining the importance and/or impact of the work presented in the manuscript. The abstract should succinctly describe the objectives of the research, the experimental approach, and the major results and their significance. It must be self-explanatory and suitable for abstracting services such as Chemical Abstracts, Biosis, etc. Reference citations in the abstract should be avoided whenever possible and, if necessary, given in full. Avoid the use of abbreviations and acronyms in the abstract unless they are defined therein.

3. Abbreviations and symbols. Use standard abbreviations and acronyms and clearly define uncommon ones parenthetically within the text upon first appearance. The journal will accept standard Journal of Biological Chemistry abbreviations. If abbreviations are particularly complex or numerous, they may be collected into an abbreviations footnote, which will appear on the first or second page of the article. Greek symbols should be inserted directly from Word's "symbol insert" pulldown menu; equations/schemes should be inserted using MathType or Word's Equation Editor.

4. Introduction. The text of the paper begins on a new page. The Introduction should state the purpose of the investigation, the hypotheses tested, and the relationship to other work in the field. Avoid lengthy reviews of the literature.

5. Results. The results should be presented in a clear and concise manner, mentioning figures and tables that summarize or illustrate important findings.

6. Discussion. Briefly interpret the results and relate them to existing knowledge in the field, but do not merely restate the results or present reviews of the literature.

7. Conclusions.NOTE: THIS SECTION IS OPTIONAL. Briefly summarize the conclusions and main findings of the study.

8. Materials and methods. Describe materials and methods briefly but in sufficient detail to allow others to repeat the experiments. Novel procedures should be described in detail, but published procedures should be referenced by a literature citation. If hazardous materials or dangerous procedures are employed, necessary precautions must be stated.

9. Supplementary material. Describe briefly the supplementary material that is intended to be available with the article. The names of all files should be given so that hyperlinks to them can be established.

Acknowledgments. Research grants or other funding (including grant or project numbers as appropriate) may be acknowledged, as may significant contributions of individuals providing scholarly, technical, or clerical assistance.

References. Authors are asked to avoid extensive references. Protein Science uses the CBE reference style, numbered consecutively in order of appearance, and should be as complete as possible. All references cited in the text must be included in the References section and vice versa. Titles of journal articles and book chapters must be included; journal titles are abbreviated according to Chemical Abstracts Service Source Index, Page numbers must be inclusive. If a pre-existing coordinate set is used either in the research or to produce a figure, its databank file code should be given either in the caption or the Materials and Methods section, in addition to whatever literature references may be appropriate.
Please prepare the References list according to the following examples.
1. King VM, Armstrong DM, Apps R, Trott JR () Numerical aspects of pontine, lateral reticular, and inferior olivary projections to two paravermal cortical zones of the cat cerebellum. J Comp Neurol
2. Voet D, Voet JG () Biochemistry, John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Book Chapter:
3. Gilmor ML, Rouse ST, Heilman CJ, Nash NR, Levey AI, Receptor fusion proteins and analysis. In: Ariano MA, Ed. () Receptor localization. Wiley-Liss, New York, pp
Electronic Media:
4. Bio-Xplor, Version New York: Biostructure Inc.;
Unpublished data and personal communications must be cited as such parenthetically in the text and must not appear in the References section. All citations of personal communications must be certified by letter from the communicating author.
Linking publish-ahead-of-print references. Authors can now have Medline links in their HTML references for citations that have only been published in EarlyView. Since EarlyView articles have PubMed records and a PubMed ID (PMID) is listed at the bottom of every PubMed record as the citation identifier, an author can include the PMID within their manuscript references as follows:
5. Wood CE, Appt SE, Clarkson TB, Franke AA, Lees CJ, Doerge DR, Cline JM. Effects of high-dose soy isoflavones and equol on reproductive tissues in female cynomolgus monkeys. PMID: [Medline]

Tables. All tables must be cited in the text in numerical order and the approximate position of each indicated in the margin. Each table should be typed double-spaced on a separate page. Tables should be numbered consecutively with Roman numerals and grouped together after the References section. A short explanatory title, column headings, and (if necessary) footnotes should make the table intelligible without reference to the text. Vertical and diagonal rules should not be used in tables; instead, indentation and vertical or horizontal space should be used to group data. Large tables of an appendix nature may be considered as Supplementary Material. If tables are reprinted from another source or if data included are from another source, permission to reprint is required. We cannot use tables produced in Excel at this time. Please produce all tables in your word processing program and save your manuscript whenever possible.
Figure legends. Type all figure legends double-spaced. Figure legends should be brief and should not contain methods. Each figure legend must begin with a short statement of the general content of the figure. Symbols indicated in the figure must be identified in the legend text. If figures are reprinted from another source, permission to reprint is required. Explain all symbols and abbreviations.
Figures (artwork).  Please also read the Submission of Figures section for detailed figure preparation instructions and for acceptable file types. For the best reproduction, halftones should be high contrast. Line drawings, graphs, charts, and chemical formulae should be professionally prepared and labeled. Indicate magnification with a bar scale. Multipart figures should be submitted as one composite.
Figures should be kept to the minimum necessary to document results or methods that cannot be described in the text. Linear plots, particularly reciprocal velocity plots, should be avoided and replaced in the text in terms of slopes, intercepts, and standard deviations. All figures must be cited in the text in numerical order and the approximate position of each indicated in the margin. Most figures will be published in a single column of the journal; use lettering of sufficient size to be legible after reduction (i.e., labels should be no smaller than –2 mm high in the reduced figure). Lettering of all figures within the article should be of uniform style (preferably a sans serif typeface). Use uppercase letters A, B, C, etc. to identify individual parts of multipart figures. Poor-quality figures or illegible labeling may result in delayed acceptance and publication. NOTE: Make sure the weight of all rules used in artwork is 1/2 point or heavier. Lighter-weight lines will not be picked up.
Stereo pairs must be mounted side by side. Corresponding points of the two images should be cm apart.
The use of color is encouraged, especially when it enhances communication and the understanding of the scientific data reported in the original manuscript. All color figures will be reproduced in full color at no cost to authors. For best reproduction, bright, clear colors should be used; muted, "muddy" colors produce less satisfactory results. Dark colors against a dark background do not reproduce well. Lemon yellow (especially against a white background) tends to disappear; use slightly greenish or golden yellows instead.
Cover artwork  . Authors are encouraged to submit a figure, related to their manuscript, which can be considered for use on the cover of the journal. This figure can be included as part of the initial submission, or included when the revised manuscript is being sent back to the Editor following receipt of comments from the referees.
Submission of Figures  : Detailed Instructions
1. Figures and artwork can only be accepted as .EPS or .TIFF files. The following figure formats are unacceptable: .JPG, .GIF, .PSD, .CRD, .PCT, .PPT, .PDF, .XLS, .DOC, .BMP, (or other Lotus formats).
2. DO NOT EMBED FIGURES WITHIN THE MANUSCRIPT TEXT FILES or embed legends with the figures. If there are color keys to the figures, these should be included in the body of the figure rather than in the legend, as it can be difficult to match legend and figure colors.
3. Use Helvetica (or similar) typeface in point sizes no smaller than 8 pt and no larger than 10 pt, except for the main callouts (e.g. A, B, C), which should be 12 pt. It is best to avoid heavy letters, which often close up when reduced.
4. We cannot make any art corrections to .TIFF or .EPS files. All figures should be proofread carefully before they are sent to us.
5. Line Art: Line art (without halftone dots) should be scanned or produced at a minimum of DPI in bitmap mode and saved as .EPS files.
6. Halftone or Grayscale Art: Art to be reproduced as halftones should be scanned or produced at DPI in grayscale mode and saved as .TIFF files. This is for halftone/grayscale art only (art that doesn't also have line art within it). If within the halftone artwork there also exists line art, please follow the dpi specifications for Combo Art instead. When in doubt with halftone art, always default to the Combo Art specifications to ensure that halftone digital art will be used.
7. Combo Art: Combo art, which means both halftone art and line art within the same piece of art, must be DPI in grayscale mode and saved as .TIFF files.
8. Color Art: Note that color artwork is processed in RGB format to optimize online presentation. To avoid delays at the page proof stage, authors are expected to have reviewed their artwork in RGB format prior to final submission. The resolution of your file must be a minimum of DPI. Digital artwork must be created either in Photoshop or Illustrator and saved as either .EPS or .TIFF format (see more detailed guidelines below for digital artwork submissions). Color art to be reproduced as halftones should be scanned or produced at DPI in RGB mode and saved as .TIFF files. Always save your color scans into the RGB color space. Colors of similar shades should be avoided because, depending on final art sizing to conform to journal style, similar shades may be difficult to differentiate. Also, avoid using very light colors, since these typically don't reproduce well.
For further guidance on preparing digital figure files, authors are encouraged to
Supplementary Material. Authors are encouraged to request that lengthy tables and other data appear as Supplementary Material. In such cases, authors should include a short paragraph after the Materials and Methods section entitled "Supplementary Material" with a brief description of the content. Supply supplementary material with the manuscript and describe it briefly (including filenames) at the bottom of the article title page. Publication of supplementary material is strictly at the Editor’s discretion. File size should be limited to MB per file.
Tables for Supplementary Material should be constructed, if possible, in a manner that will permit them to be read by common computer programs and standard word processor or spreadsheet software using IBM or Macintosh compatible computers. Data that are best viewed in a graphical form should be submitted suitable for viewing by means of standard spreadsheet software. Any other means of publication of graphical material should be cleared in advance by the Editor.
Publication of such material is subject to availability of space and to the Editor’s discretion.
Preparation and submission of files for Supplementary Material are the responsibility of the author.
Data Deposition Requirements.

Structure Coordinates. For papers describing structures of biological macromolecules derived from X-ray, electron microscopy, and NMR studies, the atomic coordinates and related experimental data (structure factor amplitudes/intensities and/or NMR restraints and chemical shifts) must be deposited as a member site of the Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB) through its OneDep deposition portal. The PDB ID assigned after deposition should be included in the manuscript. Authors must agree to release the atomic coordinates and experimental data when the associated article is published. Questions relating to depositions should be sent to

Electron microscopy-derived density maps (all averaging methods, including sub-tomogram averaging) must be deposited in EM Data Bank (EMDB; For electron tomographic studies with no averaging, deposition of one or more representative tomograms in EMDB is strongly recommended. In cases where PDB models have been fitted into EMDB maps, the correspondences between them should be clearly stated.

Other structural data. Small angle X-ray and neutron scattering data and structural models must be deposited at SASBDB ( prior to submission. The database accession numbers must be cited in the manuscript and authors must agree to release the experimental data and structural models immediately upon publication.

NMR spectroscopic data. Authors publishing NMR spectroscopic data or results derived from NMR spectroscopic data are required to deposit the published data and supporting NMR spectral data in the appropriate public database, BMRB ( or wwPDB (for experiments leading to structural coordinates, see above). These data may include assigned chemical shifts, coupling constants, relaxation parameters (T1, T2, and NOE values), dipolar couplings, or other data accepted by BMRB. The BMRB entry accession number should be cited and the data must be released upon publication.

Protein and Nucleic Acid Sequences. Protein sequence data must be deposited, prior to manuscript submission, with the Protein Identification Resource (PIR) (National Biomedical Research Foundation, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC , USA). Authors must certify in writing that this sequence has been scanned against his (or other comparable) database(s) and that all identities or significant similiraties, including species be included as part of manuscript submission and also, prior to manuscript acceptance, must be sent by the author to GenBank Submissions (M.S. K, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM , USA).

The Publisher reserves the right to copyedit manuscripts to conform to Protein Science journal style. Wiley will send all page proofs electronically to corresponding authors. Digital page proofs (which include instructions and query sheet), together with an Author Packet of forms to be signed, will be distributed to corresponding authors online in PDF format. Each PDF proof will be accessible via a unique password that our compositor will send to the corresponding author in e-mail. Authors must review and return their PDF page proofs within 48 hours. Authors can opt to return these forms via e-mail, fax, or overnight mail. No rewriting of the final accepted manuscript is permitted at the proof stage. Excessive author alterations in proof may cause delays in publication and will be charged to the author.

Publication fees are assessed as follows:
Original Articles & Uninvited Reviews: $ for non-members; $ for Protein Society members
For The Record & Protein Structure Reports: $ for non-members; $ for Protein Society members

Members receive $ discount on publication charges.
The publication of Invited Reviews is provided free of charge.
There are no charges for color figures.

All papers are freely available online 12 months after publication.

If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services (; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the non-standard Copyright Transfer Agreement

If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the Protein Science non-standard CTA to sign. The terms and conditions of the non-standard CTA can be previewed below:

Terms and Conditions. Please do not complete this PDF until you are prompted to login into Author Services as described above.

Note to Corresponding Authors on Deposit of Accepted Version

Funder arrangements. Certain funders, including the NIH, members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) and Wellcome Trust require deposit of the Accepted Version in a repository after an embargo period. Details of funding arrangements are set out at the following Please contact the journal production editor if you have additional funding requirements.

Institutions. Wiley has arrangements with certain academic institutions to permit the deposit of the Accepted Version in the institutional repository after an embargo period. Details of such arrangements are set out at the following website:

For authors choosing OnlineOpen. If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

Creative Commons Attribution License OAA

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services visit

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:

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___Full article title, authors, affiliations, and corresponding author’s mailing and e-mail addresses should be on a separate page.
___Eliminate nonstandard abbreviations in titles.
___Include with abstract brief statement outlining significance of the paper’s findings.
___Indicate institutional affiliation and complete mailing address for all authors.
___Identify corresponding author and supply telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address.
___Supply the names and contact information of at least six possible reviewers. (Reviewers should have expertise in the subject to review, should not be members of the Editorial Advisory Board, and should be chosen to avoid any potential conflict of interest.)
___Supply copies of any related articles submitted or in press.
___(Optional) Include a figure for consideration for use on the cover.
___Abstract and keywords should be on a separate page.
___Do not cite references, tables, or figures in the Abstract.
___Include written permission for any borrowed or modified figures or tables from the copyright holder.
___Supply full manufacturer names and addresses (city and state or country) for all brand name products cited in text.
___List figure legends as a group on a separate page.
___Make sure figures are of good quality.
___Do not cite materials submitted but not yet accepted for publication as References. Instead, cite in text as unpublished work
___Tables should not be saved in a graphic program; tables created using Word's table format are preferred.
___Supply tables on separate pages.
___Cite tables and figures in the text in numerical order.
___Check that references are in the style of the journal, accurate, and cited in the text.
___Ensure that Conflict of Interest Statement is included at the end of the manuscript file.
Supplementary Material (optional)
___Is the supplementary material indicated on the title page of the manuscript?.
___Is there a section after Materials and Methods entitled Supplementary Material?.
___Does the supplementary material section briefly and adequately describe the supplementary material?


Applied Sciences — Instructions for Authors


Submission Checklist


  1. read the Aims & Scope to gain an overview and assess if your manuscript is suitable for this journal;
  2. use the Microsoft Word template or LaTeX template to prepare your manuscript;
  3. make sure that issues about publication ethics, copyright, authorship, figure formats, data and references format have been appropriately considered; and
  4. ensure that all authors have approved the content of the submitted manuscript.

Manuscript Submission Overview

Types of Publications

Applied Sciences has no restrictions on the length of manuscripts, provided that the text is concise and comprehensive. Full experimental details must be provided so that the results can be reproduced. Applied Sciences requires that authors publish all experimental controls and make full datasets available where possible (see the guidelines on Supplementary Materials and references to unpublished data).

Manuscripts submitted to Applied Sciences should neither been published before nor be under consideration for publication in another journal. The main article types are as follows:

  • Articles: Original research manuscripts. The journal considers all original research manuscripts provided that the work reports scientifically sound experiments and provides a substantial amount of new information. Authors should not unnecessarily divide their work into several related manuscripts, although Short Communications of preliminary, but significant, results will be considered. Quality and impact of the study will be considered during peer review.
  • Reviews: These provide concise and precise updates on the latest progress made in a given area of research. Systematic reviews should follow the PRISMA guidelines.

Submission Process

Manuscripts for Applied Sciences should be submitted online at The submitting author, who is generally the corresponding author, is responsible for the manuscript during the submission and peer-review process. The submitting author must ensure that all eligible co-authors have been included in the author list (read the criteria to qualify for authorship) and that they have all read and approved the submitted version of the manuscript. To submit your manuscript, register and log in to the submission website. Once you have registered, click here to go to the submission form for Applied Sciences. All co-authors can see the manuscript details in the submission system, if they register and log in using the e-mail address provided during manuscript submission.

Accepted File Formats

Authors must use the Microsoft Word template or LaTeX template to prepare their manuscript. Using the template file will substantially shorten the time to complete copy-editing and publication of accepted manuscripts. The total amount of data for all files must not exceed MB. If this is a problem, please contact the editorial office Accepted file formats are:

  • Microsoft Word: Manuscripts prepared in Microsoft Word must be converted into a single file before submission. When preparing manuscripts in Microsoft Word, the Applied Sciences Microsoft Word template file must be used. Please insert your graphics (schemes, figures, etc.) in the main text after the paragraph of its first citation.
  • LaTeX: Manuscripts prepared in LaTeX must be collated into one ZIP folder (include all source files and images, so that the Editorial Office can recompile the submitted PDF). When preparing manuscripts in LaTeX, please use the Applied Sciences LaTeX template files. You can now also use the online application writeLaTeX to submit articles directly to Applied Sciences. The MDPI LaTeX template file should be selected from the writeLaTeX template gallery.
  • Supplementary files: May be any format, but it is recommended that you use common, non-proprietary formats where possible (see below for further details).

Cover Letter

A cover letter must be included with each manuscript submission. It should be concise and explain why the content of the paper is significant, placing the findings in the context of existing work and why it fits the scope of the journal. Confirm that neither the manuscript nor any parts of its content are currently under consideration or published in another journal. Any prior submissions of the manuscript to MDPI journals must be acknowledged. The names of proposed and excluded reviewers should be provided in the submission system, not in the cover letter.

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Manuscript Preparation

General Considerations

  • Research manuscripts should comprise:
    • Front matter: Title, Author list, Affiliations, Abstract, Keywords
    • Research manuscript sections: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions (optional).
    • Back matter: Supplementary Materials, Acknowledgments, Author Contributions, Conflicts of Interest, References.
  • Review manuscripts should comprise the front matter, literature review sections and the back matter. The template file can also be used to prepare the front and back matter of your review manuscript. It is not necessary to follow the remaining structure. Structured reviews and meta-analyses should use the same structure as research articles and ensure they conform to the PRISMA guidelines.
  • Graphical abstract: Authors are encouraged to provide a graphical abstract as a self-explanatory image to appear alongside with the text abstract in the Table of Contents. Figures should be a high quality image in any common image format. Note that images displayed online will be up to 11 by 9 cm on screen and the figure should be clear at this size.
  • Abbreviations should be defined in parentheses the first time they appear in the abstract, main text, and in figure or table captions and used consistently thereafter.
  • SI Units (International System of Units) should be used. Imperial, US customary and other units should be converted to SI units whenever possible
  • Equations: If you are using Word, please use either the Microsoft Equation Editor or the MathType add-on. Equations should be editable by the editorial office and not appear in a picture format.
  • Research Data and supplementary materials: Note that publication of your manuscript implies that you must make all materials, data, and protocols associated with the publication available to readers. Disclose at the submission stage any restrictions on the availability of materials or information. Read the information about Supplementary Materials and Data Deposit for additional guidelines.
  • Preregistration: Where authors have preregistered studies or analysis plans, links to the preregistration must be provided in the manuscript.
  • Guidelines and standards: MDPI follows standards and guidelines for certain types of research. See for further information.

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Front Matter

These sections should appear in all manuscript types

  • Title: The title of your manuscript should be concise, specific and relevant. It should identify if the study reports (human or animal) trial data, or is a systematic review, meta-analysis or replication study.
  • Author List and Affiliations: Authors' full first and last names must be provided. The initials of any middle names can be added. The PubMed/MEDLINE standard format is used for affiliations: complete address information including city, zip code, state/province, country, and all email addresses. At least one author should be designated as corresponding author, and his or her email address and other details should be included at the end of the affiliation section. Please read the criteria to qualify for authorship.
  • Abstract: The abstract should be a total of about words maximum. The abstract should be a single paragraph and should follow the style of structured abstracts, but without headings: 1) Background: Place the question addressed in a broad context and highlight the purpose of the study; 2) Methods: Describe briefly the main methods or treatments applied. Include any relevant preregistration numbers, and species and strains of any animals used. 3) Results: Summarize the article's main findings; and 4) Conclusion: Indicate the main conclusions or interpretations. The abstract should be an objective representation of the article: it must not contain results which are not presented and substantiated in the main text and should not exaggerate the main conclusions.
  • Keywords: Three to ten pertinent keywords need to be added after the abstract. We recommend that the keywords are specific to the article, yet reasonably common within the subject discipline.
  • Featured Application: Authors are encouraged to provide a concise description of the specific application or a potential application of the work. This section is not mandatory.

Research Manuscript Sections

  • Introduction: The introduction should briefly place the study in a broad context and highlight why it is important. It should define the purpose of the work and its significance, including specific hypotheses being tested. The current state of the research field should be reviewed carefully and key publications cited. Please highlight controversial and diverging hypotheses when necessary. Finally, briefly mention the main aim of the work and highlight the main conclusions. Keep the introduction comprehensible to scientists working outside the topic of the paper.
  • Materials and Methods: They should be described with sufficient detail to allow others to replicate and build on published results. New methods and protocols should be described in detail while well-established methods can be briefly described and appropriately cited. Give the name and version of any software used and make clear whether computer code used is available. Include any pre-registration codes.
  • Results: Provide a concise and precise description of the experimental results, their interpretation as well as the experimental conclusions that can be drawn.
  • Discussion: Authors should discuss the results and how they can be interpreted in perspective of previous studies and of the working hypotheses. The findings and their implications should be discussed in the broadest context possible and limitations of the work highlighted. Future research directions may also be mentioned. This section may be combined with Results.
  • Conclusions: This section is not mandatory, but can be added to the manuscript if the discussion is unusually long or complex.
  • Patents: This section is not mandatory, but may be added if there are patents resulting from the work reported in this manuscript.

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Back Matter

  • Supplementary Materials: Describe any supplementary material published online alongside the manuscript (figure, tables, video, spreadsheets, etc.). Please indicate the name and title of each element as follows Figure S1: title, Table S1: title, etc.
  • Acknowledgments: All sources of funding of the study should be disclosed. Clearly indicate grants that you have received in support of your research work and if you received funds to cover publication costs. Note that some funders will not refund article processing charges (APC) if the funder and grant number are not clearly and correctly identified in the paper. Funding information can be entered separately into the submission system by the authors during submission of their manuscript. Such funding information, if available, will be deposited to FundRef if the manuscript is finally published.
  • Author Contributions: Each author is expected to have made substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data; or the creation of new software used in the work; or have drafted the work or substantively revised it; AND has approved the submitted version (and version substantially edited by journal staff that involves the author’s contribution to the study); AND agrees to be personally accountable for the author’s own contributions and for ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work, even ones in which the author was not personally involved, are appropriately investigated, resolved, and documented in the literature.
    For research articles with several authors, a short paragraph specifying their individual contributions must be provided. The following statements should be used "X and Y conceived and designed the experiments; X performed the experiments; Y analyzed the data; Y wrote the paper." Authorship must include and be limited to those who have contributed substantially to the work. Please read the section concerning the criteria to qualify for authorship carefully.
  • Conflicts of Interest: Authors must identify and declare any personal circumstances or interest that may be perceived as inappropriately influencing the representation or interpretation of reported research results. If there is no conflict of interest, please state "The authors declare no conflict of interest." Any role of the funding sponsors in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to publish the results must be declared in this section. If there is no role, please state “The founding sponsors had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, and in the decision to publish the results”.
  • References: References must be numbered in order of appearance in the text (including table captions and figure legends) and listed individually at the end of the manuscript. We recommend preparing the references with a bibliography software package, such as EndNote, ReferenceManager or Zotero to avoid typing mistakes and duplicated references. We encourage citations to data, computer code and other citable research material. Include the digital object identifier (DOI) for all references where available. If available online, you may use reference style 9. below.
  • Citations and References in Supplementary files are permitted provided that they also appear in the main text and in the reference list.

In the text, reference numbers should be placed in square brackets [ ], and placed before the punctuation; for example [1], [1–3] or [1,3]. For embedded citations in the text with pagination, use both parentheses and brackets to indicate the reference number and page numbers; for example [5] (p. 10). or [6] (pp. –).

The reference list should include the full title, as recommended by the ACS style guide. Style files for Endnote and Zotero are available.

References should be described as follows, depending on the type of work:

  • Journal Articles:
    1. Author 1, A.B.; Author 2, C.D. Title of the article. Abbreviated Journal NameYear, Volume, page range, DOI. Available online: URL (accessed on Day Month Year).
  • Books and Book Chapters:
    2. Author 1, A.; Author 2, B. Book Title, 3rd ed.; Publisher: Publisher Location, Country, Year; pp. –; ISBN.
    3. Author 1, A.; Author 2, B. Title of the chapter. In Book Title, 2nd ed.; Editor 1, A., Editor 2, B., Eds.; Publisher: Publisher Location, Country, Year; Volume 3, pp. –; ISBN.
  • Unpublished work, submitted work, personal communication:
    4. Author 1, A.B.; Author 2, C. Title of Unpublished Work. status (unpublished; manuscript in preparation).
    5. Author 1, A.B.; Author 2, C. Title of Unpublished Work. Abbreviated Journal Name stage of publication (under review; accepted; in press).
    6. Author 1, A.B. (University, City, State, Country); Author 2, C. (Institute, City, State, Country). Personal communication, Year.
  • Conference Proceedings:
    7. Author 1, A.B.; Author 2, C.D.; Author 3, E.F. Title of Presentation. In Title of the Collected Work (if available), Proceedings of the Name of the Conference, Location of Conference, Country, Date of Conference; Editor 1, Editor 2, Eds. (if available); Publisher: City, Country, Year (if available); Abstract Number (optional), Pagination (optional).
  • Thesis:
    8. Author 1, A.B. Title of Thesis. Level of Thesis, Degree-Granting University, Location of University, Date of Completion.
  • Websites:
    9. Title of Site. Available online: URL (accessed on Day Month Year).
    Unlike published works, websites may change over time or disappear, so we encourage you create an archive of the cited website using a service such as WebCite. Archived websites should be cited using the link provided as follows:
    Title of Site. URL (archived on Day Month Year).

  • See the Reference List and Citations Guide for more detailed information.

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    Preparing Figures, Schemes and Tables

    • File for Figures and schemes must be provided during submission in a single zip archive and at a sufficiently high resolution (minimum pixels width/height, or a resolution of dpi or higher). Common formats are accepted, however, TIFF, JPEG, EPS and PDF are preferred.
    • Applied Sciences can publish multimedia files in articles or as supplementary materials. Please contact the editorial office for further information.
    • All Figures, Schemes and Tables should be inserted into the main text close to their first citation and must be numbered following their number of appearance (Figure 1, Scheme I, Figure 2, Scheme II, Table 1, etc.).
    • All Figures, Schemes and Tables should have a short explanatory title and caption.
    • All table columns should have an explanatory heading. To facilitate the copy-editing of larger tables, smaller fonts may be used, but no less than 8 pt. in size. Authors should use the Table option of Microsoft Word to create tables.
    • Authors are encouraged to prepare figures and schemes in color (RGB at 8-bit per channel). There is no additional cost for publishing full color graphics.

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    Supplementary Materials, Data Deposit and Software Source Code

    Data Availability

    In order to maintain the integrity, transparency and reproducibility of research records, authors must make their experimental and research data openly available either by depositing into data repositories or by publishing the data and files as supplementary information in this journal.

    Computer Code and Software

    For work where novel computer code was developed, authors should release the code either by depositing in a recognized, public repository or uploading as supplementary information to the publication. The name and version of all software used should be clearly indicated.

    Supplementary Material

    Additional data and files can be uploaded as "Supplementary Files" during the manuscript submission process. The supplementary files will also be available to the referees as part of the peer-review process. Any file format is acceptable, however we recommend that common, non-proprietary formats are used where possible.

    Unpublished Data

    Restrictions on data availability should be noted during submission and in the manuscript. "Data not shown" should be avoided: authors are encouraged to publish all observations related to the submitted manuscript as Supplementary Material. "Unpublished data" intended for publication in a manuscript that is either planned, "in preparation" or "submitted" but not yet accepted, should be cited in the text and a reference should be added in the References section. "Personal Communication" should also be cited in the text and reference added in the References section. (see also the MDPI reference list and citations style guide).

    Remote Hosting and Large Data Sets

    Data may be deposited with specialized service providers or institutional/subject repositories, preferably those that use the DataCite mechanism. Large data sets and files greater than 60 MB must be deposited in this way. For a list of repositories specialized in scientific and experimental data, please consult or The data repository name, link to the data set (URL) and accession number, doi or handle number of the data set must be provided in the paper. The journal Data also accepts submissions of data set papers.

    References in Supplementary Files

    Citations and References in Supplementary files are permitted provided that they also appear in the reference list of the main text.

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    Research and Publication Ethics

    Research Ethics

    Research Involving Human Subjects

    When reporting on research that involves human subjects, human material, human tissues, or human data, authors must declare that the investigations were carried out following the rules of the Declaration of Helsinki of (, revised in According to point 23 of this declaration, an approval from an ethics committee should have been obtained before undertaking the research. At a minimum, a statement including the project identification code, date of approval and name of the ethics committee or institutional review board should be cited in the Methods Section of the article. Data relating to individual participants must be described in detail, but private information identifying participants need not be included unless the identifiable materials are of relevance to the research (for example, photographs of participants’ faces that show a particular symptom). Editors reserve the right to reject any submission that does not meet these requirements.

    Example of an ethical statement: "All subjects gave their informed consent for inclusion before they participated in the study. The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, and the protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of XXX (Project identification code)."

    A written informed consent for publication must be obtained from participating patients who can be identified (including by the patients themselves). Patients’ initials or other personal identifiers must not appear in an image. For manuscripts that include any case details, personal information, and/or images of patients, authors must obtain signed informed consent from patients (or their relatives/guardians) before submitting to an MDPI journal. Patient details must be anonymized as far as possible, e.g., do not mention specific age, ethnicity, or occupation where they are not relevant to the conclusions.

    You may refer to our sample form and provide an appropriate form after consulting with your affiliated institution. Alternatively, you may provide a detailed justification of why informed consent is not necessary. For the purposes of publishing in MDPI journals, a consent, permission, or release form should include unlimited permission for publication in all formats (including print, electronic, and online), in sublicensed and reprinted versions (including translations and derived works), and in other works and products under open access license. To respect patients’ and any other individual’s privacy, please do not send signed forms. The journal reserves the right to ask authors to provide signed forms if necessary.

    Research Involving Cell Lines

    Methods sections for submissions reporting on research with cell lines should state the origin of any cell lines. For established cell lines the provenance should be stated and references must also be given to either a published paper or to a commercial source. If previously unpublished de novo cell lines were used, including those gifted from another laboratory, details of institutional review board or ethics committee approval must be given, and confirmation of written informed consent must be provided if the line is of human origin.

    An example of Ethical Statements:

    The HCT cell line was obtained from XXXX. The MLH1+ cell line was provided by XXXXX, Ltd. The DLD-1 cell line was obtained from Dr. XXXX. The DR-GFP and SA-GFP reporter plasmids were obtained from Dr. XXX and the Rad51KA expression vector was obtained from Dr. XXXX.

    Publication Ethics Statement

    Applied Sciences is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). We fully adhere to its Code of Conduct and to its Best Practice Guidelines.

    The editors of this journal enforce a rigorous peer-review process together with strict ethical policies and standards to ensure to add high quality scientific works to the field of scholarly publication. Unfortunately, cases of plagiarism, data falsification, image manipulation, inappropriate authorship credit, and the like, do arise. The editors of Applied Sciences take such publishing ethics issues very seriously and are trained to proceed in such cases with a zero tolerance policy.

    Authors wishing to publish their papers in Applied Sciences must abide to the following:

    • Any facts that might be perceived as a possible conflict of interest of the author(s) must be disclosed in the paper prior to submission.
    • Authors should accurately present their research findings and include an objective discussion of the significance of their findings.
    • Data and methods used in the research need to be presented in sufficient detail in the paper, so that other researchers can replicate the work.
    • Raw data should preferably be publicly deposited by the authors before submission of their manuscript. Authors need to at least have the raw data readily available for presentation to the referees and the editors of the journal, if requested. Authors need to ensure appropriate measures are taken so that raw data is retained in full for a reasonable time after publication.
    • Simultaneous submission of manuscripts to more than one journal is not tolerated.
    • Republishing content that is not novel is not tolerated (for example, an English translation of a paper that is already published in another language will not be accepted).
    • If errors and inaccuracies are found by the authors after publication of their paper, they need to be promptly communicated to the editors of this journal so that appropriate actions can be taken. Please refer to our policy regarding publication of publishing addenda and corrections.
    • Your manuscript should not contain any information that has already been published. If you include already published figures or images, please obtain the necessary permission from the copyright holder to publish under the CC-BY license. For further information, see the Rights and Permissions page.
    • Plagiarism, data fabrication and image manipulation are not tolerated.
      • Plagiarism is not acceptable in Applied Sciences submissions.

        Plagiarism includes copying text, ideas, images, or data from another source, even from your own publications, without giving any credit to the original source.

        Reuse of text that is copied from another source must be between quotes and the original source must be cited. If a study's design or the manuscript's structure or language has been inspired by previous works, these works must be explicitly cited.

        If plagiarism is detected during the peer review process, the manuscript may be rejected. If plagiarism is detected after publication, we may publish a correction or retract the paper.

      • Image files must not be manipulated or adjusted in any way that could lead to misinterpretation of the information provided by the original image.

        Irregular manipulation includes: 1) introduction, enhancement, moving, or removing features from the original image; 2) grouping of images that should obviously be presented separately (e.g., from different parts of the same gel, or from different gels); or 3) modifying the contrast, brightness or color balance to obscure, eliminate or enhance some information.

        If irregular image manipulation is identified and confirmed during the peer review process, we may reject the manuscript. If irregular image manipulation is identified and confirmed after publication, we may correct or retract the paper.

      Our in-house editors will investigate any allegations of publication misconduct and may contact the authors' institutions or funders if necessary. If evidence of misconduct is found, appropriate action will be taken to correct or retract the publication. Authors are expected to comply with the best ethical publication practices when publishing with MDPI.

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    Reviewer Suggestions

    During the submission process, please suggest three potential reviewers with the appropriate expertise to review the manuscript. The editors will not necessarily approach these referees. Please provide detailed contact information (address, homepage, phone, e-mail address). The proposed referees should neither be current collaborators of the co-authors nor have published with any of the co-authors of the manuscript within the last five years. Proposed reviewers should be from different institutions to the authors. You may identify appropriate Editorial Board members of the journal as potential reviewers. You may suggest reviewers from among the authors that you frequently cite in your paper.

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    English Corrections

    To facilitate proper peer-reviewing of your manuscript, it is essential that it is submitted in grammatically correct English. Advice on some specific language points can be found here.

    If you are not a native English speaker, we recommend that you have your manuscript professionally edited before submission or read by a native English-speaking colleague. This can be carried out by MDPI's English editing service. Professional editing will enable reviewers and future readers to more easily read and assess the content of submitted manuscripts. All accepted manuscripts undergo language editing, however an additional fee will be charged to authors if very extensive English corrections must be made by the Editorial Office: pricing is according to the service here.

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    Preprints and Conference Papers

    Applied Sciences accepts articles that have previously been made available as preprints provided that they have not undergone peer review. A preprint is a draft version of a paper made available online before submission to a journal.

    MDPI operates Preprints, a preprint server to which submitted papers can be uploaded directly after completing journal submission. Note that Preprints operates independently of the journal and posting a preprint does not affect the peer review process. Check the Preprintsinstructions for authors for further information.

    Expanded and high quality conference papers can be considered as articles if they fulfil the following requirements: (1) the paper should be expanded to the size of a research article; (2) the conference paper should be cited and noted on the first page of the paper; (3) if the authors do not hold the copyright of the published conference paper, authors should seek the appropriate permission from the copyright holder; (4) authors are asked to disclose that it is conference paper in their cover letter and include a statement on what has been changed compared to the original conference paper. Applied Sciences does not publish pilot studies or studies with inadequate statistical power.

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