Whether you've put together a business plan or an investment proposal, you're going to need an executive summary to preface your report. The summary should include the major details of your report, but it's important not to bore the reader with minutiae. Save the analysis, charts, numbers, and glowing reviews for the report itself. This is the time to grab your reader's attention and let the person know what it is you do and why he or she should read the rest of your business plan or proposal.
The executive summary is also an important way for you, as the entrepreneur, to determine which aspects of your company have the clearest selling points, and which aspects may require a bit more explanation. Akira Hirai, founder and CEO of Phoenix-based Cayenne Consulting, a firm that helps entrepreneurs develop business plans and financial forecasts, says the process of distilling the essence of your business down to a page forces you to think hard, decide what's important, and discard things that aren't essential to the story line. "By doing this," he says, "you develop a better vision of what your business is all about, and you become better at telling your story."
How to Write an Executive Summary: Why Write It?
Investors, lenders, executives, managers, and CEOs are busy. Always. That means the executive summary is an essential gateway for your business plan to get read. Think about it this way: If you had an endless list of things to do, and someone handed you an 80-page document and said, "Read this!" you'd probably first want to know why.
"The most important reason to include an executive summary is that in many cases, it is the only thing the reader will read," says Pablo Bonjour, founder and CEO of Katy, Texas-based SMG Business Plans, a company that offers entrepreneurs assistance in writing business plans. According to Bonjour, investors will read the executive summary to decide if they will even bother reading the rest of the business plan. It's rare for an investor or lender to read an entire business plan, at least in the initial stages of analysis and consideration for funding, so having a strong executive summary is key.
When you're writing your business plan, your goal is to get your foot in the door and face time with the investor. "Assuming that your business is a good fit for the investor, a strong executive summary will get you invited in for a meeting," Hirai says. "A poor executive summary will leave you standing in the cold."
Dig Deeper: How to Write a Great Business Plan
How to Write an Executive Summary: The First Paragraph
Just as a movie might begin with a fight scene or a magazine article open with a funny anecdote, you'll need a strong hook for your executive summary.
"The most important part of an executive summary is the first paragraph that clearly explains what the company does," according to Dave Lavinsky, president of Growthink, a Los Angeles-based company that helps entrepreneurs develop business plans and raise capital. "Most business plans start with a story that tries to create excitement, and this doesn't always work."
One way to think about it, says Hirai, is that your executive summary needs an executive summary. The first paragraph needs to compel the reader to read the rest of the summary. Perhaps you have a compelling aha! moment, so you might start with that. If you've identified a problem in the marketplace that isn't being adequately serviced, you might start with that.
Dig Deeper: Business Executive Summary Template
How to Write an Executive Summary: The Nuts and Bolts
There is no set structure for an executive summary, but there are guidelines you must follow to ensure your business plan or investment proposal gets the attention it deserves. First, think about your core strengths. Use bullet points to present your ideas, and make sure you always use concise language.
"You need to match your story to your audience, your business, and your desired outcomes," says Hirai. "If you have an exceptional management team, you might start with that."
Ask yourself what's unique and exciting about your company. After you've explained what your company does, it's time to sell why you believe you're uniquely qualified to succeed.
Lavinsky recommends addressing these questions when putting together your executive summary:
• Do you have a unique partnership?
• Do you already have customers and traction?
• Do you have patents or technology?
• Is your marketing plan special in some way?
Depending on your audience, you can also try a more rigid approach to the executive summary. After the first paragraph, Bonjour says one effective structure is to summarize each section in the same order in which the items are presented within the full business plan. To make the structure as relevant as possible for the reader, typically an investor or a lender, he suggests considering these categories:
• A Company Description Summary
• The Problem
• Your Solution
• Why Now
The Why Now category is one of the most important questions to answer, because it makes your executive summary timely. The last thing you want is to leave the reader feeling like there's plenty of time to act. Chances are, if there isn't any urgency to your executive summary, your business plan won't get read.
After describing the elements above, the executive summary should also have a brief financial summary. For your financials, Bonjour suggests including the valuation of the deal, so that the reader knows right away what the risks are, and what the returns can be.
Dig Deeper: Executive Summary as a Guiding Light
How to Write an Executive Summary: Strictly Professional or Humorous? What's the Tone?
This depends on who your readers are. Do your research. If you're presenting your plan to investors, make sure the language of the executive summary caters to their backgrounds. For example, if you know your investor has a degree in chemical engineering, your language might be different from that in the executive summary presented to an investor who studied philosophy.
In other words, "use language that will resonate with your target audience," says Hirai. Don't be afraid to change your executive summary when you present it to different investors. Consider creating different versions for each audience, he says, but make sure that it's always kept professional, crisp, and free of any embarrassing errors. Another good tip he gives is to use personal pronouns (e.g., "we" and "our") over general nouns (e.g., "the company"). Your reader will feel a stronger personal connection with you, your brand, and your idea if you can relate to the reader in the first person.
Don't forget to be confident, either. If the writer does not clearly believe in this company, says Bonjour, why should the reader believe in it? Put yourself in your reader's shoes, and ask yourself why you would want to invest in a company. "Think about it like a job interview or asking a girl out on a date," he says. "If you are not confident and don't act like you want it, chances are you won't get anywhere."
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How to Write an Executive Summary: The Length
Remember, every executive summary is--and should be--unique. Depending on the size of the business plan or investment proposal you're sending, the executive summary's length will vary. However, the general consensus is that an executive summary should be between one and four pages long.
Think logically. A two-page summary can be printed on the front and back of a single page, which can feel like a professional brochure. And if you can't tell the essence of your story in a page or two, says Hirai, then you probably haven't thought things through well enough.
Echoing this thought, Bonjour asserts that "you can cheat a bit by using smaller fonts, widening your margins, shrinking images and tables, but ultimately you need to summarize everything contained within the executive summary. After all, it is called a 'summary' for a reason."
Dig Deeper: How to Refine Your Business Idea
How to Write an Executive Summary: What to Avoid
"The reason most business entrepreneurs get executive summaries wrong is that they believe the goal of the executive summary is to get the investors to give them a check," says Lavinsky. "The goal of the executive summary is to get the investor to read the business plan or to meet with you."
With that in mind, clear your vocabulary of any superlatives, clichés, or claims that can't be backed up, he adds. Avoid using terms like "the best," "groundbreaking," "cutting-edge," and "world-class." "Investors see those words day in and day out," he says, "and eventually they lose meaning."
Dig Deeper: How to Kill a Great Idea!
How to Write an Executive Summary: Is It Any Good?
The most important element to any executive summary is a clear, concise, and relevant explanation of what your company does. Obviously, you should devote a good portion of your time to reading and rereading the summary. But there are some tricks. Lavinsky shares his litmus test: Have a fifth grader or any noninvestor read your executive summary, even just the first paragraph. Then ask the person to explain to you what your company does. If he or she can explain it with ease, you're good. If you hear crickets, you'll need to rework it.
Dig Deeper: How to Write a Summary Business Plan
The executive summary is arguably the most valuable component of any proposal, but most people are confused about its purpose. It’s actually not about summarizing at all; it’s about selling. Here’s how to write an executive summary that seals the deal.
I have written, edited, or managed the creation of what feels like a gagillion business proposals in my career, and 90% of the time I had a feeling of dread throughout the whole process (this was obviously in the dark ages before Proposify existed). But nothing compared to the feeling of writing an executive summary.
There is so much dissent about the function of the executive summary — what it should say, what it should do, how long it should be, and whether it be written before or after the body of the proposal — that it can add to the already stressful task of getting a winning proposal written, designed, and out the door to the client on time.
It’s time to change all that. The executive summary is arguably the most valuable component of any proposal. Its purpose is clear, its potential is huge, and putting it together can be straightforward if you change your approach and follow a few simple steps.
I’ll share what I’ve learned about writing an effective executive summary for client proposals. Hopefully, it will make the proposal process less painful, and help you convince anyone on your team who might disagree to follow your lead. Resistance is futile.
The purpose of an executive summary
First of all, the executive summary needs a rebrand. To me, the name itself speaks of stuffy suits, boring, jargon-filled reports, and boardrooms filled with cigar smoke and people ready to say no. But that’s my hangup.
In all seriousness, the word “summary” can be misleading, and this is the first mistake people often make when it comes to writing their executive summary. They think that this is where you explain the entire proposal in 250 words. That you literally ‘summarize’ the proposal by rehashing everything from page one forward.
But in fact, the purpose of the executive summary is to sell your solution to the client’s problem. It should be persuasive, outlining why the client should choose your company. It should be specific and focus on results.
The executive summary needs to be persuasive and highlight the benefits of your company/product/service, rather than being descriptive and focusing on the features. You can save the features for the body of the proposal.
The executive summary needs to grab the reader’s attention and pique their interest. Even though you and your team spent painstaking hours writing this proposal, selecting just the right graphics, and coming up with the best solution for your client’s problem, they may only read this one page and then flip to your pricing table.
The executive summary helps the client decide quickly whether they're going to read the rest of the proposal, pass it on to other decision-makers, or if it's destined for the recycle bin.
So you better make it good.
When to write the executive summary
This issue of whether you write the executive summary before or after the rest of the proposal is as divided as the issue of what’s better about a Reese’s Peanut Butter Cup, the chocolate or the peanut butter.
Some people feel you should write the executive summary first because it can help you outline your concept and organize your thoughts for the entire proposal. That way it acts as a guide to members of your team who are tasked with preparing sections of the proposal, ensuring that everyone’s on the same page, that the big idea is consistent throughout, and that all necessary components are included.
Others feel strongly that you should write the executive summary after you’ve prepared the rest of the proposal because then you’ve had a chance to work through the objectives and the solutions, and you’ll have a better idea of what you want to say and how you want to say it. Plus things may have changed since you first started the proposal so you might need to adjust your approach.
My suggestion is chocolate AND peanut butter.
I like to write the executive summary first because it helps to filter all the ideas our team had during the brainstorming process about the best way to pitch this client.
With an executive summary written, or at least outlined, I’m more confident about delegating parts of the proposal creation process to different team members because they’ll understand the approach and what they need to do to contribute to a consistent, cohesive document.
Once the body of the proposal is finished, I then go back to tweak the executive summary as needed. Sometimes new ideas rose to the top as we worked through the proposal, or early ideas turned out to be impossible to execute due to the client budget or timeline.
I used to leave writing the executive summary to the end, and since inevitably we were always in a time crunch to deliver the proposal to the client, I would feel anxious and rushed to get it done. But once I started writing a draft of the executive summary at the beginning, it was one less thing to worry about. I could edit the executive summary as needed and I knew there would be no huge surprises in what other team members had prepared.
How to write an executive summary:
The Opener: Capture their attention
You need an opener that's compelling. You need to get your client’s attention right away, and you do that by talking about THEM, not about you. Focus on the issue and the result, but be direct, concise, and evocative.
This is the time to hook them in — get them excited about what they’re going to read next.
The Need: We get it
Before a client hires you, they want to know that you get them. You can’t solve a problem that you don’t understand. This section of the executive summary is where you demonstrate your grasp of the situation. You could include a bit of your own research or a brief reference to your agency's experience dealing with a similar situation. You should also talk about how the client will benefit from solving the problem - what will change, the positive outcomes, the results.
Again, the focus here is on the client and their challenge, not on you and your company.
The Solution: We’ve got it
Now you’re in the spotlight. This section is where you talk about the brilliant solution you’re proposing and why it will work. But remember, this is just an overview. They can read all the delicious details in the proposal so keep it high level but still provide enough detail to convince them you have something specific and well thought out for them.
This section should start to provide the client with a sense of relief and get them excited about the result.
The Evidence: We can do it
It's time to show your stuff. Talk about why your company, your team, or your product is not only willing to take this challenge on, but you're qualified to do so.
Maybe this is your niche market and you have lots of experience helping other companies with a similar issue. Maybe it’s a particular skill set your team possesses, your research, your algorithm, or your project management process. Or maybe you’ve won 27 Academy Awards for best picture, and you know you can make this a hit.
Talk about WHY you can make this a successful project and deliver results, but (broken record) keep it brief.
The Call to Action: Let’s do it
Keeping in mind that the purpose of the executive summary is to sell, it’s now time to close the deal.
Make the client feel like they have no other chance for happiness than to hire you because of X and Y that differentiate you from the competition and proves your solution is the one that will make their dreams come true.
Talk about why you want to work with them — a little flattery goes a long way — and about how, as partners, you will be successful.
The Do’s and Don’ts of the Executive Summary
Here are some other important points to keep in mind when writing your executive summary:
Don’t make it too long
Some people recommend a formula that the executive summary is 10% of your entire proposal. I usually try to keep it to one page, two tops if it’s a larger proposal. Be mindful that if you’re working on an RFP, they may already set out a particular length limit, so you’ll want to stick to that.
Don’t use jargon
This rule applies to everything but especially when writing proposals. Jargon can act as a smokescreen to mask the fact that someone doesn’t really know what they’re talking about, or it can confuse clients if they’re not familiar with the same terms. Like, what the hell is ‘next gen’, anyway? Ugh.
Don’t use overly technical language
Unless you are absolutely sure that the only person who will read the executive summary is an engineer or a developer or someone who will understand exactly what you’re talking about, don’t get too technical. Of course in some situations you may need to reference certain details but remember that this is a persuasive document - sell the benefits, not the features. Save the tech stuff for the proposal.
Don’t talk about your company history
The history of your company does not belong in the executive summary, and sometimes I’m not even sure it belongs in a proposal. But if it is appropriate and relevant, put it in the body of the proposal under “About Us” or something.
Do focus on your client
Think about what they want to know, not what you want to tell them. Like any piece of copy, you need to write for your audience so make sure you think about them; what turns them off and what turns them on.
Do mention your client’s company name
People like to hear their names and the same holds true for businesses. Make sure you reference your client’s full company name several times in the executive summary, so they feel like you’re focused on them.
Do use plain language
The regular rules for writing apply to executive summaries. Use simple, short sentences that are clear and can be understood by almost any reading level, especially if you might be writing for people whose first language is not English. Don’t be pretentious - you’ll come off like an ass. Be concise, and persuasive. I’ve found this site helpful for keeping me on track for plain language writing.
Do proofread and edit
This probably goes without saying but you really, really don’t want any typos in your executive summary. Get more than one set of eyes on your document before it goes out, and preferably someone who wasn’t involved in its creation.
Executive Summary Example
Here's an example of an executive summary I wrote using a customizable proposal template from Proposify's gallery. Of course every executive summary needs to be tailored to your specific project, your client's needs, and your brand voice. If you're looking for more inspiration, we have many other business proposal templates that you can customize yourself.
I hope this guide will help turn your ho-hum executive summaries into wicked pitches of excellence. Remember to be persuasive, not pedantic. And if anyone has a suggestion on a new name for executive summary, bring it on.
About Jennifer Faulkner
Marketing manager @proposify, muse for #demoncopyangel. Channeling Maria Von Trapp, Kate Middleton, and my taxi-driving, yard-sale-obsessed grandmother. Professional word nerd and unapologetic disciple of the Oxford comma. Follow on Twitter
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