Latex Back Matter Bibliography Sample

The main point of writing a text is to convey ideas, information, or knowledge to the reader. The reader will understand the text better if these ideas are well-structured, and will see and feel this structure much better if the typographical form reflects the logical and semantic structure of the content.

LaTeX is different from other typesetting systems in that you just have to tell it the logical and semantical structure of a text. It then derives the typographical form of the text according to the “rules” given in the document class file and in various style files. LaTeX allows users to structure their documents with a variety of hierarchical constructs, including chapters, sections, subsections and paragraphs.

Global structure[edit]

When LaTeX processes an input file, it expects it to follow a certain structure. Thus every input file must contain the commands

\documentclass{...}\begin{document} ... \end{document}

The area between and is called the preamble. It normally contains commands that affect the entire document.

After the preamble, the text of your document is enclosed between two commands which identify the beginning and end of the actual document:

\begin{document} ... \end{document}

You would put your text where the dots are. The reason for marking off the beginning of your text is that LaTeX allows you to insert extra setup specifications before it (where the blank line is in the example above: we'll be using this soon). The reason for marking off the end of your text is to provide a place for LaTeX to be programmed to do extra stuff automatically at the end of the document, like making an index.

A useful side-effect of marking the end of the document text is that you can store comments or temporary text underneath the in the knowledge that LaTeX will never try to typeset them:

Preamble[edit]

Document classes[edit]

When processing an input file, LaTeX needs to know which layout standard to use. Layouts standards are contained within 'class files' which have .cls as their filename extension.

\documentclass[options]{class}

Here, the parameter for the command specifies the .cls file to use for the document. It is recommended to put this declaration at the very beginning. The LaTeX distribution provides additional classes for other layouts, including letters and slides. It is also possible to create your own, as is often done by journal publishers, who simply provide you with their own class file, which tells LaTeX how to format your content. But we'll be happy with the standard article class for now. The parameter customizes the behavior of the document class. The options have to be separated by commas.

Example: an input file for a LaTeX document could start with the line

\documentclass[11pt,twoside,a4paper]{article}

which instructs LaTeX to typeset the document as an article with a base font size of 11 points, and to produce a layout suitable for double sided printing on A4 paper.

Here are some document classes that can be used with LaTeX:

articleFor articles in scientific journals, presentations, short reports, program documentation, invitations, ...
IEEEtranFor articles with the IEEE Transactions format.
procA class for proceedings based on the article class.
reportFor longer reports containing several chapters, small books, thesis, ...
bookFor real books.
slidesFor slides. The class uses big sans serif letters.
memoirFor changing sensibly the output of the document. It is based on the book class, but you can create any kind of document with it [1]
letterFor writing letters.
beamerFor writing presentations (see LaTeX/Presentations).

The generic document classes that come with LaTeX offer some layout flexibility, which is why they have a lot of options in common. Non-generic classes (those provided by university departments or publication houses) may have different options than those shown below or no options at all. Normally, third-party classes come with their own documentation. The most common options for the generic document classes are listed in the following table:

10pt, 11pt, 12ptSets the size of the main font in the document. If no option is specified, 10pt is assumed.
a4paper, letterpaper,...Defines the paper size. The default size is letterpaper; However, many European distributions of TeX now come pre-set for A4, not Letter, and this is also true of all distributions of pdfLaTeX. Besides that, a5paper, b5paper, executivepaper, and legalpaper can be specified.
fleqnTypesets displayed formulas left-aligned instead of centered.
leqnoPlaces the numbering of formulas on the left hand side instead of the right.
titlepage, notitlepageSpecifies whether a new page should be started after the document title or not. The article class does not start a new page by default, while report and book do.
twocolumnInstructs LaTeX to typeset the document in two columns instead of one.
twoside, onesideSpecifies whether double or single sided output should be generated. The classes article and report are single sided and the book class is double sided by default. Note that this option concerns the style of the document only. The option twoside does not tell the printer you use that it should actually make a two-sided printout.
landscapeChanges the layout of the document to print in landscape mode.
openright, openanyMakes chapters begin either only on right hand pages or on the next page available. This does not work with the article class, as it does not know about chapters. The report class by default starts chapters on the next page available and the book class starts them on right hand pages.
draftmakes LaTeX indicate hyphenation and justification problems with a small square in the right-hand margin of the problem line so they can be located quickly by a human. It also suppresses the inclusion of images and shows only a frame where they would normally occur.

For example, if you want a report to be in 12pt type on A4, but printed one-sided in draft mode, you would use:

\documentclass[12pt,a4paper,oneside,draft]{report}

Packages[edit]

While writing your document, you will probably find that there are some areas where basic LaTeX cannot solve your problem. If you want to include graphics, colored text or source code from a file into your document, you need to enhance the capabilities of LaTeX. Such enhancements are called packages. Some packages come with the LaTeX base distribution. Others are provided separately. Modern TeX distributions come with a large number of packages pre-installed. The command to use a package is pretty simple: :

\usepackage[options]{package}

command, where package is the name of the package and options is a list of keywords that trigger special features in the package. For example, to use the color package, which lets you typeset in colors, you would type:

\documentclass{report}\usepackage{color}\begin{document} ... \end{document}

You can pass several options to a package, each separated by a comma.

\usepackage[option1,option2,option3]{''package_name''}

The document environment[edit]

Top matter[edit]

At the beginning of most documents there will be information about the document itself, such as the title and date, and also information about the authors, such as name, address, email etc. All of this type of information within LaTeX is collectively referred to as top matter. Although never explicitly specified (there is no command) you are likely to encounter the term within LaTeX documentation.

A simple example:

\documentclass[11pt,a4paper]{report}\begin{document}\title{How to Structure a LaTeX Document}\author{Andrew Roberts}\date{December 2004}\maketitle\end{document}

The , , and commands are self-explanatory. You put the title, author name, and date in curly braces after the relevant command. The title and author are usually compulsory (at least if you want LaTeX to write the title automatically); if you omit the command, LaTeX uses today's date by default. You always finish the top matter with the command, which tells LaTeX that it's complete and it can typeset the title according to the information you have provided and the class (style) you are using. If you omit , the title will never be typeset.


Using this approach, you can only create a title with a fixed layout. If you want to create your title freely, see the Title Creation section. You should remember, however, that the goal of LaTeX is to leave formatting to the documentclass designer, and if you wish to submit your work to multiple publishers then you should avoid designing a custom title.

Abstract[edit]

As most research papers have an abstract, there are predefined commands for telling LaTeX which part of the content makes up the abstract. This should appear in its logical order, therefore, after the top matter, but before the main sections of the body. This command is available for the document classes article and report, but not book.

\documentclass{article}\begin{document}\begin{abstract} Your abstract goes here... ... \end{abstract} ... \end{document}

By default, LaTeX will use the word "Abstract" as a title for your abstract. If you want to change it into anything else, e.g. "Executive Summary", add the following line before you begin the abstract environment:

\renewcommand{\abstractname}{Executive Summary}

Sectioning commands[edit]

The commands for inserting sections are fairly intuitive. Of course, certain commands are appropriate to different document classes. For example, a book has chapters but an article doesn't. Here are some of the structure commands found in simple.tex.

\chapter{Introduction} This chapter's content... \section{Structure} This section's content... \subsection{Top Matter} This subsection's content... \subsubsection{Article Information} This subsubsection's content...

Notice that you do not need to specify section numbers; LaTeX will sort that out for you. Also, for sections, you do not need to use and commands to indicate which content belongs to a given block.

LaTeX provides 7 levels of depth for defining sections (see table below). Each section in this table is a subsection of the one above it.

CommandLevelComment
-1not in letters
0only books and reports
1not in letters
2not in letters
3not in letters
4not in letters
5not in letters

All the titles of the sections are added automatically to the table of contents (if you decide to insert one). But if you make manual styling changes to your heading, for example a very long title, or some special line-breaks or unusual font-play, this would appear in the Table of Contents as well, which you almost certainly don't want. LaTeX allows you to give an optional extra version of the heading text which only gets used in the Table of Contents and any running heads, if they are in effect. This optional alternative heading goes in [square brackets] before the curly braces:

\section[Effect on staff turnover]{An analysis of the effect of the revised recruitment policies on staff turnover at divisional headquarters}

Section numbering[edit]

Numbering of the sections is performed automatically by LaTeX, so don't bother adding them explicitly, just insert the heading you want between the curly braces. Parts get roman numerals (Part I, Part II, etc.); chapters and sections get decimal numbering like this document, and appendices (which are just a special case of chapters, and share the same structure) are lettered (A, B, C, etc.).

You can change the depth to which section numbering occurs, so you can turn it off selectively. By default it is set to 3. If you only want parts, chapters, and sections numbered, not subsections or subsubsections etc., you can change the value of the secnumdepthcounter using the command, giving the depth level you wish. For example, if you want to change it to "1":

\setcounter{secnumdepth}{1}

A related counter is tocdepth, which specifies what depth to take the Table of Contents to. It can be reset in exactly the same way as secnumdepth. For example:

To get an unnumbered section heading which does not go into the Table of Contents, follow the command name with an asterisk before the opening curly brace:

\subsection*{Introduction}

All the divisional commands from to have this "starred" version which can be used on special occasions for an unnumbered heading when the setting of secnumdepth would normally mean it would be numbered.

If you want the unnumbered section to be in the table of contents anyway, use package unnumberedtotoc[1]. It provides the command

which will take care of a proper header as well. and are also available. KOMA classes provide those commands by default.

If you don't want to use package unnumberedtotoc, you have to do everything by hand using and (or even ).

\section*{Introduction}\markright{}\addcontentsline{toc}{section}{Introduction}

Note that if you use PDF bookmarks you will need to add a phantom section so that hyperlinks will lead to the correct place in the document. The command is defined in the hyperref package, and is Commonly used like this:

\phantomsection\addcontentsline{toc}{section}{Introduction}\section*{Introduction}

For chapters you will also need to clear the page (this will also correct page numbering in the ToC):

\clearpage%or \cleardoublepage\phantomsection\addcontentsline{toc}{chapter}{List of Figures}\listoffigures

Section number style[edit]

See Counters.

Ordinary paragraphs[edit]

Paragraphs of text come after section headings. Simply type the text and leave a blank line between paragraphs. The blank line means "start a new paragraph here": it does not mean you get a blank line in the typeset output. For formatting paragraph indents and spacing between paragraphs, refer to the Paragraph Formatting section.

Table of contents[edit]

All auto-numbered headings get entered in the Table of Contents (ToC) automatically. You don't have to print a ToC, but if you want to, just add the command at the point where you want it printed (usually after the Abstract or Summary).

Entries for the ToC are recorded each time you process your document, and reproduced the next time you process it, so you need to re-run LaTeX one extra time to ensure that all ToC pagenumber references are correctly calculated. We've already seen how to use the optional argument to the sectioning commands to add text to the ToC which is slightly different from the one printed in the body of the document. It is also possible to add extra lines to the ToC, to force extra or unnumbered section headings to be included.

The commands and work in exactly the same way as to automatically list all your tables and figures. If you use them, they normally go after the command. The command normally shows only numbered section headings, and only down to the level defined by the tocdepth counter, but you can add extra entries with the command. For example if you use an unnumbered section heading command to start a preliminary piece of text like a Foreword or Preface, you can write:

\subsection*{Preface}\addcontentsline{toc}{subsection}{Preface}

This will format an unnumbered ToC entry for "Preface" in the "subsection" style. You can use the same mechanism to add lines to the List of Figures or List of Tables by substituting lof or lot for toc. If the hyperref package is used and the link does not point to the correct chapter, the command in combination with or can be used (see also Labels and Cross-referencing):

\cleardoublepage\phantomsection\addcontentsline{toc}{chapter}{List of Figures}\listoffigures

To change the title of the ToC, you have to paste this command in your document preamble. The List of Figures (LoF) and List of Tables (LoT) names can be changed by replacing the with for LoF and for LoT.

Depth[edit]

The default ToC will list headings of level 3 and above. To change how deep the table of contents displays automatically the following command can be used in the preamble:

This will make the table of contents include everything down to paragraphs. The levels are defined above on this page. Note that this solution does not permit changing the depth dynamically.

You can change the depth of specific section type, which could be useful for PDF bookmarks (if you are using the hyperref package) :

\makeatletter\renewcommand*{\toclevel@chapter}{-1}% Put chapter depth at the same level as \part.\chapter{Epilogue}\renewcommand*{\toclevel@chapter}{0}% Put chapter depth back to its default value.\makeatother

In order to further tune the display or the numbering of the table of contents, for instance if the appendix should be less detailed, you can make use of the tocvsec2 package (CTAN, doc).

Book structure[edit]

The standard LaTeX book class follows the same layout described above with some additions. By default a book will be two-sided, i.e. left and right margins will change according to the page number parity. Furthermore current chapter and section will be printed in the header.

If you do not make use of chapters, it is barely useful to use the book class.

Additionally the class provides macros to change the formatting of some places of the document. We will give you some advice on how to use them properly.[2]

\begin{document}\frontmatter\maketitle% Introductory chapters\chapter{Preface}% ...\mainmatter\chapter{First chapter}% ...\appendix\chapter{First Appendix}\backmatter\chapter{Last note}
  • The frontmatter chapters will not be numbered. Page numbers will be printed in roman numerals. Frontmatter is not supposed to have sections, so they will be numbered because there is no chapter numbering. Check the Counters chapter for a fix.
  • The mainmatter chapters works as usual. The command resets the page numbering. Page numbers will be printed in arabic numerals.
  • The macro can be used to indicate that following sections or chapters are to be numbered as appendices. Appendices can be used for the article class too:
\appendix\section{First Appendix}

Only use the macro once for all appendices.

  • The backmatter behaves like the frontmatter. It has the same issue with section numbering.

As a general rule you should avoid mixing the command order. Nonetheless all commands are optional, so you might consider using only a few.

Note that the special content like the table of contents is considered as an unnumbered chapter.

Page order[edit]

This is one traditional page order for books.

Frontmatter
  1. Half-title
  2. Empty
  3. Title page
  4. Information (copyright notice, ISBN, etc.)
  5. Dedication if any, else empty
  6. Table of contents
  7. List of figures (can be in the backmatter too)
  8. Preface chapter
Mainmatter
  1. Main topic
Appendix
  1. Some subordinate chapters
Backmatter
  1. Bibliography
  2. Glossary / Index

Special pages[edit]

Comprehensive papers often feature special pages at the end, like indices, glossaries and bibliographies. Since this is quite a complex topic, we will give you details in the dedicated part Special Pages.

Bibliography[edit]

Any good research paper will have a complete list of references. LaTeX has two ways of inserting your references into a document:

  • you can embed them within the document itself. It's simpler, but it can be time-consuming if you are writing several papers about similar subjects so that you often have to cite the same books.
  • you can store them in an external BibTeX file and then link them via a command to your current document and use a Bibtex style to define how they appear. This way you can create a small database of the references you might use and simply link them, letting LaTeX work for you.

To learn how to add a bibliography to your document, see the Bibliography Management section.

Notes and references[edit]

Guide to AMS Editor's Package

For Conference Proceedings and Collections

Download the editor's package (editpkg_amslatex.zip).
(Requires AMS-LaTeX 2.0. This is a "required" component of a LaTeX distribution, and is thus already present if your LaTeX installation is less than ten years old.)

Purpose of this package

The AMS editor's package is intended for editors of proceedings and collections, to help them:

  • prepare front and end matter in a standard format;
  • deliver all the files needed to produce the front and back matter:
    • front matter -- required: all files containing material that should appear before the first article in the collection;
    • back matter -- optional: all files containing common material to be placed after the final article;
  • communicate the structure and organization of the volume to the AMS production staff.

The package is provided only for AMS-LaTeX. In addition, if any files for individual articles in the collection are submitted in a form other than AMS-LaTeX, they will be converted to AMS-LaTeX by AMS staff before processing.

What the package includes

The package includes the following:

  • the document class file;
  • two template files:

    • This is the main file for all the required and optional elements for the front of the book in the correct order, with roman page numbers.
    •     Note: This will not be needed for most books.
      This is the main file for all the common material for the back of the book (bibliography, index, if any) in the desired order.
  • this file of instructions that you are reading.

Topics covered by these instructions

General information is given first. Information specific to a particular version is clearly marked within each topic.


How to use the templates

  • Begin by copying the templates to files named for the series and the editor:
    ==>
    ==>
  • If there is no general back matter (index, bibliography), ignore the instruction for and do not submit that file.
     
  • Do not move material from the "back" template into the "front" template.

    The goal is to provide instructions for a logical final assembly of the book from the submitted files.

Title and copyright page information -- Required

  • Use the template .
  • The first two pages created from this package are not used directly in the final product. The information on these pages is used at the AMS in creation of the final title and copyright pages.
  • The template provides a place for the following information:
    • title,
    • editor name(s),
    • MSC subject classification numbers.

Table of Contents (TOC) -- Required

  • Use the template .
  • The table of contents includes the title and author name(s) for each article. (Page numbers will be added at the AMS.)

Basic TOC style:

  • Both the beginning and end of the Table of Contents must be marked. Use
    \begin{contentslist} ... \end{contentslist}
  • Use this template for each contents entry (NOTE: Do not enter page numbers; the tag is required for formatting.):
    \contitem \title{} \author{} \page{}
  • Only one author should be entered with the tag. If an item has multiple authors, tag each one separately.
  • For preliminary chapters that have no author, omit the    tag.
  • Examples:
    \contitem \title{Preface} \page{} \contitem \title{A solution of Deligne's Hochschild cohomology conjecture} \author{J. McClure} \author{J. Smith} \page{}

Variations:

  • When a volume is divided into parts, they are indicated by part headings in the contents list. These are inserted as follows, just before the which begins a part:
    \part{full text of heading} \contitem ...
    Part headings are flush left by default; to center them, use the    document style option.
     
  • If there is a reason to change the heading of the contents page, this can be done by supplying the new title just before the contents list; the formula for a two-line title is shown:
    \renewcommand{\contentsname}{% First line\protect\\Second line} \begin{contentslist} ...
    This technique can be used to insert additional lists if required, for example a list of illustrations, or a second contents list (e.g. "Contents of Volume II") if a work is divided into more than one volume. In such a case, each list needs a new and .

Preface, introduction, etc. -- Required

  • Use the template .
  • A preface is an unnumbered introductory chapter.
    This and other introductory chapters have no author, but they should have a signature at the end.
  • Use    to begin preliminary chapters.
  • Acknowledgments should appear as the last paragraph of the preface.
  • Use    at the end of the preface for the editor's signature.
    Within   , indicate line breaks with .

Dedication -- Optional

  • Use the template .
  • A short dedication (one or two lines) should be centered. Use the environment
    \begin{shortdedication} ... \end{shortdedication}
    Indicate a line break by .
  • A longer dedication is presented in paragraph form. Use the environment
    \begin{dedication} ... \end{dedication}
  • Instructions for both forms of dedication are given in the front matter template.

List of participants -- Optional

  • Use the template .
  • Participant lists are set in a two-column format. Use the environment
    \begin{participants} \chapter[Participants]{List of Participants} \participant ... \end{participants}
    The chapter title may be changed if appropriate.
  • Precede each participant name by the command Example:

Bibliographies -- Optional

  • Bibliographies in collections usually belong to one of these categories:
    • A list of publications by an individual:
      • In a proceedings volume in honor of that individual.
        Such a list should be part of the book's front matter.
      • In the collected works of that individual.
        The list may appear in either the front matter or back matter, as determined by the editor.
    • A comprehensive bibliography covering articles by different authors.
      Such bibliographies are rare; when they occur, they should appear in the back matter of the collection.
    • Bibliographies for an individual article or chapter should be processed within the article or chapter. They are not covered here.
  • For a bibliography in the front matter, use the template .
  • For a bibliography in the back matter, use the template .
  • Create the bibliography as a separate file. If feasible, use the amsrefs package or BibTeX, following the instructions that apply to the tool selected.
  • If using amsrefs, include these commands in the file created from the appropriate template:
    \usepackage{amsrefs} ... \include{bib-file-name}
    The bibliography file should use these commands as a wrapper:
    \begin{bibdiv}[Optional title] {Optional introductory text} \begin{biblist} ... \end{biblist} \end{bibdiv}
    Multiple bibliographies can easily be accommodated.
  • If using BibTeX, include these commands in the file created from the appropriate template:
    \bibliographystyle{...} \bibliography{bib-file-name}
    If optional introductory text is desired, see instructions in the back matter template.
  • If using neither amsrefs nor BibTeX, input the references so that the output will be in the same format as that appearing in the bibliographies of the individual articles in the collection.

Indexes -- Optional

  • For most proceedings volumes, indexes are not included.
  • Use the file copied from the template . Read the instructions in the file.
  • MakeIndex is the tool recommended for index preparation. Instructions are given in the LaTeX User's Guide (Lamport), Appendix A. Additional, more detailed, instructions are given in the LaTeX Companion (Second edition), Chapter 11.
  • Indexes are set in a two-column format.
     
  • Adding index terms and processing the index:

    • The instructions for adding index terms to a LaTeX source file are in Appendix A of the LaTeX User's Guide and Chapter 11 of the LaTeX Companion (Second edition).
       
    • If the collection contains any articles prepared with AMS-TeX that you wish to be indexed, request instructions from the AMS technical support staff. However, please note that non-AMS-LaTeX article files will be converted to AMS-LaTeX before processing at AMS.
       
    • Place the command in the preamble of each LaTeX article file that contains index items, and run through LaTeX one more time to get the raw file of index terms (.idx file). If the book is to contain only one index, there will be one .idx file for each article that contains index items.
       
    • Combine all the .idx files into a single file named and run this through MakeIndex to obtain a sorted file . When you process the file, the .ind file will be pulled in and properly formatted.
       
    • Page numbers will not be presented correctly at this stage. Final processing at the AMS will produce correct page numbers for each index entry. Confirmation copy will be provided for your careful review.
       
    • Check the output to make sure that everything has been sorted into the proper order, and there are no multiple entries for the same index term. (Multiple entries are often the result of differences in spacing in entries as typed in the input file.) If changes are needed, make all corrections in the input file(s).
       
    • If there will be more than one index, use the package with the option. (See the package documentation for usage details; the package is included in TeX Live, and is present in most TeX distributions.) With this package, you can compile files of index terms for as many indexes as you want, to be processed by MakeIndex, and included in your book. Other multiple-index packages are not compatible with AMS document classes.

Compiling a proceedings volume or similar collection

If your book is in a monograph series (e.g., History of Mathematics) with chapters by different authors, see the next section.

At present, there is no mechanism for processing an AMS proceedings volume or similar collection into a single output file, using a main file or other means. Each article must be processed separately, and must thus be in a separate .tex file.

General strategy

  • Collect all the articles and arrange them in the desired order.
  • Check each article to make sure the authors have followed the instructions:
    • The article uses the document class/style file for the series, or "amsproc" for a proceedings series that has no specific author package.
    • The top matter is tagged properly according to the template for the series.
    • If internal cross-references are used, they are references to section numbers (AMS-LaTeX ), not page numbers (AMS-LaTeX ).
    • All citations to bibliography items are resolved.
  • Create the table of contents using the template described above. Include all required information for each article, excluding the page numbers, which will be entered at the AMS.
  • Table of contents data may be placed either in the *-front.tex file, or in a separate file to be read in by an    command.

Parts

  • A proceedings volume may be divided into parts, e.g. invited lectures, contributed papers, or theory, applications, etc.
  • When there are multiple parts, a "part-title" page will be used to separate them.
  • The "part-title" page will be prepared at the AMS. Include a comment when submitting your files that part-title pages are used.

Compiling a monograph volume with chapters by different authors

Some monographs (e.g., in the History of Mathematics series) contain one or more chapters or appendices that should have the author identified on the chapter title page and in the table of contents.

The package "amsbooka" will do this for a book prepared in LaTeX using an AMS document class. Use of this package is described in our Author FAQ.


Summary of document style options

Different series vary in the details of their style, particularly that of the Table of Contents. The default style is the one used for proceedings of meetings.

Specify the options to the document class as follows:

The following document-level options are provided:

  • -- ordinary proceedings volumes; this is the default.
  • -- in the Table of Contents, author names are italic (the default is small caps).
  • -- Table of Contents entries are essentially the same as bibliographic entries, appropriate when articles are reprinted from another source, such as collected works.
  • -- in the Table of Contents, articles are labeled with a number or other reference. This is often used in conjunction with the    option.
  • -- center part headings in the Table of Contents; the default is flush left.

The following series have particular style requirements:

  • CRM (copublications with the Centre de Récherches Mathématiques, Université de Montréal):
    • Use the option   .
    • Do not use the option   .

Delivering files to the AMS


Where to go if you need support

  • Many questions on specific topics are answered in our Author FAQ.
  • Non-technical questions should be directed to the Acquisitions Department.
  • Technical assistance can be requested from AMS technical support staff.
    Please identify the book series and principal editor when inquiring.
  • If your question involves specific uses of input coding, please send a brief but complete and runnable file, along with the log from your attempt to process it. Otherwise, we may have to request more information before we can help you resolve the problem.

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