For more information on citing electronic resources, see the online 2012 APA Style Guide to Electronic References. Listed below are the most common examples.
Regardless of format, authors using and citing Internet sources should observe the following guidelines:
- In general, include the same elements, in the same order, as you would for a print source, and add as much electronic retrieval information as needed for others to locate this source.
- Direct readers as closely as possible to the information being cited; reference specific documents rather than home pages.
- When a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is available, include the DOI instead of the Web site address in the reference. See Where to Find a DOI.
- If no DOI assigned, provide the home page URL for the journal or book publisher.
- Do not insert a hyphen if you need to break the URL across lines. Instead break the URL before punctuation (one exception is http://)
- Do not include retrieval dates unless the material may change over time (e.g., wikis). In other words, date of retrieval is no longer included for material that is the "version of record" / final version.
- In general, it is not necessary to include database information in the citation.
- When citing an entire website, it is sufficient to give the address of the site in just the text.
Example: Kidspsych is a wonderful interactive website for children.
Citation in Text
|Electronic book retrieved from database|
Karch, A.M. (2009). Lippincott's nursing drug guide. [Books@OVID version]. Retrieved from http://www.ovid.com/site/products/books_landing.jsp
|Electronic chapter retrieved from online book|
Marion, D.W. (2013). Diaphragmatic pacing. In D.S. Basow (Ed.), UpToDate. Retrieved from http://www.uptodate.com
|Electronic journal article with 1-2 authors, retrieved from database, with DOI|
Wilens, T.E., & Biederman, J. (2006). Alcohol, drugs, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A model for the study of addictions in youth. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 20, 580-588. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0269881105058776
|(Wilens & Biederman, 2006)|
|Electronic journal article, 3-7 authors, retrieved from database, without DOI|
Tang, P., Yuan, W., & Tseng, H. (2005). Clinical follow-up study on diabetes patients participating in a health management plan. Journal of Nursing Research, 13, 253-261. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com
|(Tang, Yuan, & Tseng, 2005) first citation|
(Tang et al., 2005) subsequent citations 3-5 authors
(Tang et al., 2005) 6+ authors first and subsequent citations
|Electronic journal article with 1-2 authors, without DOI|
Sillick, T.J., & Schutte, N.S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/ejap
|(Sillick & Schutte, 2006)|
|Electronic journal article with DOI, advance online publication|
Von Ledebur, S.C. (2007). Optimizing knowledge transfer by new employees in companies. Knowledge Management Research & Practice. Advance online publication. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.kmrp.8500141
|(Von Ledebur, 2007)|
|Web page with no author listed|
New child vaccine gets funding boost. (2001). Retrieved March 21, 2001, from http://news.ninemsn.com.au/health/story_13178.asp
|("New Child Vaccine," 2001)|
|Newspaper article online|
Brody, J.E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com
|Government report online|
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2003). Managing asthma: A guide for schools (NIH Publication No. 02-2650). Retrieved from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/prof/lung/asthma/asth_sch.pdf
|(U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [HHS], National Institutes of Health [NIH], National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [NHLBI], 2003) first citation|
(HHS, NIH, NHLBI, 2003) subsequent citations
Statistics?Use statistics as background or
supporting information and to add weightto your research.
male, aged 0-4
female, aged 0-4
mother tongue, French
Statistics are a presentation-ready form of data.
Statistics represent a method of presenting numerical
data. They are obtained through mathematical
operations on numerical data. Statistics are usually presented in form of tables, charts, graphs etc.
(Information adapted from Statistics: Power
Table source: Statistics Canada. 2007. Ontario, Quebec (tables).
2006 Community Profiles. 2006 Census. Statistics Canada Catalogue no.
92-591-XWE. Ottawa. Released March 13, 2007.
http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census06/data/profiles/community/Index.cfm?Lang=E (accessed August 22, 2008).